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August 16, 2019

What is a Genetic Disorder and How it is Defined?

Genetic Disorder

Genetic disease is the disease that is caused by an abnormality in the makeup of the genes of an individual. The genetic abnormality can range from minuscule to major — from a discrete mutation in a single base in the DNA of a single gene to a gross chromosomal problem involving the subtraction or addition of a whole chromosome or set of chromosomes. Some people inherit genetic disorders from the parents, while acquired changes or mutations in a preexisting gene or group of genes cause other genetic disorders. Genetic mutations can occur due to some environmental exposure or can occur randomly as well.

Types of genetic disorders:

  • Single gene inheritance

  • Multi factorial inheritance

  • Chromosome abnormalities

  • Mitochondrial inheritance

 

  • Single gene genetic inheritance

Single gene inheritance is also known as Mundelein or monogenetic inheritance. The Changes or the mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of a single gene cause this type of inheritance.

  • Multi factorial inheritance

This type of inheritance disorders are caused by a combination of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes

Examples of multi factorial inheritance diseases are:

  • Diabetes

  • Cancer

  • Obesity

  • High blood pressure,

  • Heart rate

  • Arthritis

  • This inheritance also is associated with heritable traits such as height, eye color, fingerprint patterns, and skin color.

 

  • Chromosomal abnormalities

In this type of genetic inheritance, distinct structures made up of protein and DNA, are present in the nucleus of each cell. As we know, chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material, abnormalities in chromosome number or structure can result in disease. This type of abnormalities typically occurs due to a problem with cell division.

  • Mitochondrial genetic inheritance

Mitochondrial genetic inheritance is caused by changes in the non-nuclear DNA of mitochondria. Mitochondria are tiny circles or rod-like organelles that are involved in cellular respiration and found in the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells. Each mitochondrion may contain 6 to 12 circular piece of DNA. This process makes the use of egg cells, but not of the sperm cells, that keep their mitochondria in the process fertilization, this type of DNA is always inherited from the female parent.

Why geneology4u?

Most genetic diseases are the direct result of the change in one gene. But the most difficult problems ahead is to further describe how genes contribute to diseases that have a complex pattern of inheritance, Genealogy 4u will help you to learn about these inherited diseases in advance and helps you in protecting you from that kind of harmful diseases such as in the cases of diabetes, asthma, cancer, and mental illness. In all such diseases, no one gene has the yes/no power to say whether a person will develop the disease or not. Change is required before the disease is diagnosed. to know more about genealogy enroll Geneology4u now!!

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